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Term Definition
A/D Converter (Also A/D or ADC)

Short for analog-to-digital converter. Converts real-world analog signals into a digital format that can be processed by a computer.

Abnormal Failure

Abnormal Failure: An artificially induced failure of a component, usually as a result of "abnormals" testing for regulatory agency safety compliance.

Absolute Move

1) A move to a specified absolute position relative to a fixed zero position as a reference point.
2) Contrasted with incremental move

Absolute Position

1) Position referenced to a fixed zero position.
2) Contrasted with incremental position

Absolute Pressure

Gage pressure plus atmospheric pressure.

Absolute Pressure Transducer

A transducer that has an internal reference chamber sealed at or close to 0 psia (full vacuum) and normally provides increasing output voltage for increases in pressure.

Absolute Zero

Temperature at which thermal energy is at a minimum. Defined as 0 Kelvin, calculated to be -273.15 ?C or -459.67?F.

AC Linearity

A dynamic measurement of how well an A/D performs. In an ideal A/D converter, a pure sine wave on the analog input appears at the digital output as a pure (sampled) sine wave. In the real world, however, spurious signals due to nonlinear distortion witin the A/D appear in the digital output. These anomalies are usually combinations of harmonics of the fundamental and intermodulation products, produced when the fundamental and its harmonics beat with the sampled frequency.


The first derivative of velocity with respect to time. Units expressed in "g".


A transducer which converts mechanical motion into an electrical signal that is proportional to the acceleration value of the motion.

Access Protocol

A defined set of procedures that function as an interface between a user and a network and enable the user to employ the services of that network.


The combined error of nonlinearity, repeatability, and hysteresis expressed as a percent of full scale output.

Acquisition Time

This term relates to sampling A/Ds which utilize a track/hold amplifier on the input to acquire and hold the analog input signal. Acquisitoin time is the time required by the T/H amplifier to settle to its final value after it is placed in the track module.


in a closed-loop control system, that part of the final control element that translates the control signal into action by the control device.


An identification (number, name, or label) that uniquely identifies a computer register, memory location, or storage device.

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