Manufacturing AUTOMATION

Glossary Terms
Terms that are used on the Manufacturing Automation website

Hot swap

exchange of components during operation.


Hyper text markup language


An interactive on-line documentation technique that allows users to
select ?? typically via a mouse click ?? certain words or
phrases to immediately link to information related to the selected item.


1) The effect of residual magnetism whereby the magnetization of a
ferrous substance lags the magnetizing force because of molecular
friction. 2) The property of magnetic material that causes the magnetic
induction for a given magnetizing force to depend upon the previous
conditions of magnetization. 3) A form of nonlinearity in which the
response of a circuit to a particular set of input conditions depends
not only on the instantaneous values of those conditions, but also on
the immediate past of the input and output signals.


Stands for "Input/Output," in automation, a term encompassing all
physical connection points between a control system and the sensors and
actuators of the "real world."


Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. IGES is an industry standard format for exchanging CAD data between systems.

Image processing

Techniques for filtering, storing, and retrieving images, as well as for processing pictorial information by computer.


An object implemented by some relational database software that controls the order in which a table is accessed or stored.


An electronic unit that converts high-level commands from a host
computer, PLC, or operator panel into step and direction pulses needed
by a stepping motor driver.


An identified measure of a process.

Information System

The information system manages the scope, validity, reliability,
selection and maintenance of quality and performance data and
information. The system also provides comparative information and
benchmarks. The data and information is then used to monitor and
improve the integrated systems.

Input signal

A signal applied to a device, element, or system.


the term for any item of electrical or electronic equipment designed to
carry out a specific function or set of functions. A device for
measuring the value of an observable attribute. The instrument may also
control the value.


systems of instruments used to observe and control a physical object or process.

Integrated circuit

A small, complete circuit of interconnected semiconductor devices such
as transistors, capacitors, and resistors printed in a single silicon


a shared boundary between two pieces of equipment. Hardware and
associated software needed to enable one device to communicate with


A device that prevents a machine from initiating an operation until a condition or set of conditions is fulfilled.


The ability of computers on a network to share application software.

Intrinsically Safe

An instrument which will not produce any spark or thermal effects under
normal or abnormal conditions that will ignite a specified gas mixture.

Inventory management

the systematic determination of items and quantities to be ordered; the
co-ordination of order release and order due dates; changes in the
required quantities; and the rescheduling of planned orders.

IOBASE-T Ethernet

A version of Ethernet that operates over twisted-pair wire at a speed
of 10 Mb/s. IOBASE-T networks with more than two terminals must use an
Ethernet hub and a star topology.


Industry Standard Architecture (PC-AT Bus) or Instrument Society of America.

ISO International Standards Organization.

Island of automation

A stand-alone pocket of automation, such as a robot, CAD/CAM system or
CNC machine, that is not connected into a cohesive system.


The reduction of the capacity of a system to respond to an external force by use of resilient isolating materials.


Principally a programming language, but it has been designed by Sun
Microsystems to function as a complete computer operating system. The
purpose of the language has been twofold: to create a single standard
that will run on a variety of competing computer systems, and to solve
vexing computer security problems introduced by the widespread reliance
on computer networks, which are vulnerable to malicious programs like


Just-in-Time is an approach to manufacturing where each operation is closely synchronized with subsequent operations.


To generate motion (continuous or incremental) whenever an operator-activated switch is closed.


The basic unit of thermal energy.

Jump instruction

An instruction that causes the processor to deviate from executing
instructions in order, by jumping to another place in the program.


A short conductor with which you can connect 2 points.


The point in a thermocouple where the two dissimilar metals are joined.


This is the Japanese word for improvement. Kaizen implies more than
improvement in basic production processes. Kaizen represents a
philosophy whereby an organization, and the individuals within it,
undertake continual improvements of all aspects of organizational life.